¿Qué es NAT (Network Address Translation y para qué sirve?

El NAT o Traducción de Direcciones de Red es un mecanismo que permite que múltiples dispositivos compartan una sola dirección IP pública de Internet, ahorrando así millones de direcciones públicas.

Como ya deben de saber, el primer requisito para que cualquier dispositivo se pueda comunicar en una red IP de datos es que tenga asignada una dirección IP, ya sea de manera automática o manual. Generalmente se ven como 192.168.1.X o algo similar y las podemos ver revisando las propiedades del adaptador de red utilizado.

Las direcciones IPs públicas son las que son reconocidas y válidas en Internet por el IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority[1]) por lo que no podemos (o debemos) utilizar direcciones públicas sin permiso (de cualquier forma no funcionarán correctamente). Las IPs públicas son fáciles de reconocer porque están fuera los siguientes rangos que son considerados privados:

Las direcciones privadas son las que utilizamos dentro de las redes privadas y NO son ruteadas a través de Internet. O sea que no funcionan a menos de que sean NATeadas antes de salir a Internet.

La explosión de dispositivos que se conectan a Internet ha provocado que las direcciones públicas o válidas en Internet se hayan agotado desde hace varios años y si no fuera por NAT, los nuevos dispositivos no se podrían conectar.

NAT funciona de manera transparente en el ruteador o modem que nos da acceso a Internet y consiste en utilizar una sola IP pero un puerto diferente para cada conexión. Esta es la razón que cualquier ISP solo entrega una IP pública pero es capaz de conectar varias decenas o cientos de dispositivos a Internet.

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